Lean Basics

PrintLogin to download pdfThe 8 types of waste explained [KI]


Type of Waste


Example within Manufacturing

Example Symptom

1 T- Transport Moving the product to several locations. Whilst the product  is in motion it is not being processed and therefore not adding value to the customer. Raw materials are made in several locations and transported to one site where a bulk intermediate is made. This is then transported for final product processing.Packaging for customer use may be at a separate site. Movement of pallets of intermediate product around a site or between sites.Large warehousing and continual movement of intermediate material on and off site rather than final product.
2 I- Inventory Storage of products, intermediates, raw materials, etc. all cost money. Economically large batches of raw material are purchased for large campaigns and sit in the warehouse for extended periods.Queued batches of intermediate material may require specific warehousing or segregation especially if the lab analysis is yet to be completed or confirmed. Large buffer stock within a manufacturing facility and large warehousing on the site; financially seen as a huge use of working capital
3 M- Motion The excessive movement of the people who operate the manufacturing facility is wasteful. Whilst they are in motion they cannot support the processing of the product.Excessive movement of data, decisions and information. People required to move from one area to another in order to move the product along the manufacturing cycle.People transporting samples or documentation.People required to move work in progress to and from the warehouse.People required to meet with other people to confirm key decisions in the supply chain process. Operators moving to and from the manufacturing unit but less activity actually within the unit.
4 P- People Over use or under use of human resources. Not having enough staff to carry out duties.Using over qualified people to carry out certain duties.Using extra human resources to assist fully automated processes Excessive over-time.Senior managers manning the manufacturing plant.
5 W- Waiting As people, equipment or product wait to be processed, it is not adding any value to the customer. Storage tanks acting as product buffers in the manufacturing process- waiting to be processed by the next step.Intermediate product which can’t leave site until the lab tests and paperwork are complete. The large amount of ‘Work In Progress’ held in the manufacturing process, often seen on the balance sheet and as ‘piles of inventory’ around the site.
6 O- Over Production Product made for no specific customer.Development of a product for no additional value. Large batch campaign, continuous large scale manufacturing processes.Development of alternative process routes which aren’t used for the development of processes which don’t support the bottleneck.Redesign of parts of the manufacturing facility which are ‘standard’, e.g. reactors. The extent of warehouse space needed and used.Development and production organisation imbalance.An ever changing process.Large engineering costs/ time associated with facility modifications
7 O- Over Processing When a particular process step does not add value to the product A cautious approach to the design of unit operations can extend processing times and can include steps, such as old or testing, which add no value.The duplication of any steps related to the supply chain process, e.g. sampling, checking. The reaction stage is typically complete within minutes yet we continue to process for hours or days.We have in process controls which never show a failure.The delay of documents to accompany finished product.
8 D- Defects Errors during the process- either requiring re-work or additional work. Material out of specification; batch documentation incomplete.Data and data entry errors.General miscommunication. Missed or late orders.Excessive overtime.Increasede operating costs.


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